- Sand casting.
Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting is a metal casting process characterized by using sand as the mold material. The term "sand casting" can also refer to an object produced by the sand casting process. Sand castings are produced in specialized foundries. Over seventy percent of all metal castings are produced via the sand casting process.
- Lost-wax casting.
Also called "investment casting", "precision casting", or cire perdue in French, this is the process by which a duplicate metal model is cast from an original model. Casts can be made of the wax model itself, the direct method, or of a wax copy of a model that need not be of wax, the indirect method.